If you ride through winter you really need to not care about the bike's appearance. It becomes a functional item rather than something fancy and shiney for fun.
Grit will shed the paint and chip the plastic, salt will get everywhere in the form of vapour (if air can get into a gap, salt will too) and the constant temperature changes from below freezing to operational temperature will fatigue metal and rubber.
Best bet in my experience is to use a decent cleaner now (one of those gel based £15 a bottle jobbies will do it), leaving for the max amount of time on the instructions and using a sponge to agitate. Then CAREFULLY use a pressure washer at distance to remove - you're not looking for force, but for itty bitty water droplets which will get into all those places salt can. If some metals are looking tatty still, use a decent polish if you're that fussed. Once you're done, spray practically everything (not the chain, brake pads, discs or anyhting else common sense tells you doesn't want it on) with ACF50. You'll need to retreat with ACF50 before winter as well.
This is the reason people often have a summer bike and a winter bike.